Technological advancement has opened up opportunities for new sports and physical activities. We introduce a concept called machine-mediated teaming, in which a human and a surrogate machine form a team to participate in physical sports games. To understand the experience of machine-mediated teaming and the guidelines for designing the system to achieve the concept, we built a case study system based on tug-of-war. Our system is a sports game played by two against two. One team consists of a player who actually pulls the rope and another player who participates in the physical game by controlling the machine’s actuators. We conducted user studies using this system to investigate the sport experience in this form and to reveal insights to inform future research on machine-mediated teaming. Based on the data obtained from the user studies, we clarified three perspectives, machine stamina, action space, and explicit feedback, that should be considered when designing future machine-mediated teaming systems. The research presented in this paper offers a first step towards exploring how humans and machines can coexist in highly dynamic physical interactions.
Azumi Maekawa, Hiroto Saito, Daisuke Uriu, Shunichi Kasahara, and Masahiko Inami. 2022. Machine-Mediated Teaming: Mixture of Human and Machine in Physical Gaming Experience. In CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '22). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 618, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1145/3491102.3517555